human immuno deficiency virus caused Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome that principally attacks cd4T cells and as a result ,body’s immunity lower thus viral, bacterial, fungal or protozoal infection occurs.

-A person with AIDS is infected but looks healthy but can be a carrier of the virus.

Transmission of HIV

  • sexual intercourse
  • transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products
  • contaminated needle or syringe use
  • vertical transmission
  • breastfeeding(15-45%)


  • having unprotected sex with infect person
  • contact with infected blood 

 -injected needles sharing

-accidental needles & contact

-transfusion of blood ,blood components and organ donation.

Activities that do not transmit HIV

  • casual contact such as handshake ,hugging, superficial kiss
  • sharing common toilet
  • air born infection
  • insect bite
  • eating together
  • studying with HIV +VE child in same school
  • taking care of AIDS patient
  • use of public paths ,swimming part

Clinical features



-fever for longer than 1 month

-chronic diarrhea for longer then 1 month


-Persistent cough for longer than 1 month

-general itchy dermatitis

-recurrent herps zoster

fungus infection in mouth/throat

general lymphadenopathy

Lab examination







*prevention of sexual transmission 

  • information &education of safe sex practice
  • control of STI

*Prevention through blood 

  • screening 
  • universal precaution
  • disinfection of equipment’s

*waste management;

  • general waste segregation paper, plastic & food product should be separated 
  • medical waste ;blood,blood products,products of conception,tissue body part should be sepreted and dumped
  • chemical waste; disinfection and chlorination can be done


*symptomatic treatment 

  • for pain- tab aspirin 
  • for fever- tab pcm
  • for diarrhea-tab metronidazole
  • for anxiety-diazepam& counselling
  • for dermatitis -Antihistamines

*Treatment of opportunistic infection

  • for fungal -topical fluconazole
  • for viral (herpes) tab acyclovir
  • for bacteria-mupirocin
  • for TB -rifampicin, isoniazid ,pyrazinamide, ethambutol

*antiretroviral therapy 



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